Paradigmatic reforms did not achieve their goals. Parametric reforms were concerned about improving pension systems but their limit, usually, is that those reforms do not deal with low densities of contribution. The pragmatic solutions were built on the tax-financed universal approach, since they reduced deprivation in family’s income. They have major potential since it deals successfully with persistent informality, labor market precariousness and social heterogeneity by reducing poverty based on fiscal transfers. Targeted cash transfers present encouraging performance, but universal programs seems to be even more effective.
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